Recommended references: (all available in the library)

  • W. Carruthers (3rd, 4th editions) “Some Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis”, Cambridge University Press 1986 (3rd), 2004 (4th).
  • Herbert O. House “Modern Synthetic Reactions”
  • Carrey and Sundberg “Advanced Organic Chemistry Part B: Reactions and Synthesis” Plenum Press

Websites for name reactions: (Many others exist)

Topics to be covered:

A) Modification of functional groups
1. Reduction
     1.1. Hydrogenation
          1. Heterogeneous catalysis
          2. Homogeneous catalysis
          3. Hydrogenation of C=C by diimide
          4. Asymetric hydrogenation of acids (esters)-acylaminoacrylics
     1.2. Hydrogenolysis of C-O, C-S, C-X, N-O, O-O bonds
          1. H2/Pd (Pt, Ni)
          2. Hydrogenolysis of C-Het at α position of C=O
     1.3. Dissolving metal reductions
          1. Reduction of aromatic compounds: Birch reduction
          2. Reduction of dienes and conjugated enones
          3. Reduction of acetylenes
          4. Reduction of phosphates
      1.4. Reduction by Hydride donors
          1. Meerwin-Pondorff reaction
          2. Metalic Hydrides
               - Sodium borohydride
               - Lithium triethyl borohydride
               - Lithium tri-sec butyl borohydride
               - Sodium cyanoboprohydride
               - Diborane
               - Lithium aluminum hydride
               - Lithum aliminum tris (t-butoxy) hydride
               - Aluminum hydride
               - Diisobutyl aluminum hydride
               - Asymetric reduction of carbonyl compounds catalyzed by oxazoborolidine
     1.5. Reduction of carbonyls to CH2 or CH=C
          1. Clemmensen reduction
          2. Wolff-Kishner reduction
               - Modification by Huang-Minlon
               - Modification by Caglioti
          3. Desulfurization of thioacetals
          4. Bamford-Stevens-Shapiro reaction
2. Oxidation
     2.1. C-H bond cleavage
          1. Oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds
               - Common reagents: Cr (VI)
               - Collins reagent
               - PCC
               - Pfitzner-Moffat and Swern Oxidations
               - Kornblum oxidation
               - MnO2 oxidation
          2. Allylic (benzylic) oxidation
               - Cr(VI)/AcOH
               - Selenium dioxide
          3. Photolysis
          4. Oxidation of enolates
          5. Wacker oxidation
     2.2. Addition to olefins
          1. Bishydroxylation of olefins (OsO4)
          2. Epoxidation of olefins
               - By peracids
               - Sharpless asymetric epoxidation
               - Reactions of epoxides (opening, rearengement, eliminations)
          3. Bromohydrines
          4. Iodolactonization
          5. Oxymercuration
          6. Hydroboration
     2.3. With C-C bond cleavage
          1. Ozonolysis
          2. Cleavage of 1,2-diols
          3. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation
     2.4. Photooxidation of olefins by singlet oxygen
          1. Reaction with 1,3-dienes
          2. Reaction with isolated double bonds containing an allylic hydrogen
          3. Reaction with enolic ethers and enamines
3. Formation of C-heteroatom bonds
     3.1. C-O Bond formation
          1. Cleavage of C-Hal, C-O bonds
               - Nucleophilic substitution
               - Mitsunobu reaction
          2. Cleavage of C-N bonds
               - Modified Nef reaction
     3.2. Formation of C-N bonds
          1. Syntheses of amines by nitrogen containing nucleophiles
          2. Amination of enolate electrophiles
          3. Rearrangements (cleavage of one C-C bond)
               - Beckmann rearrangement
               - Curtius rearragement
4. Elimination reactions
     4.1. E1 Elimination
     4.2. E2 Elimination (anti)
          1. Regioselectivity
          2. Stereochemistry
     4.3. SYN-Elimination
          1. Pyrolysis of carboxylic esters
          2. Chugaev elimination
          3. Cope elimination
          4. Elimination of sulfoxydes, selenoxydes
          5. Elimination of epoxydes
     4.4. Reductive elimination
     4.5. Oxidative elimination
     4.6. Cycloreversions
          1. Winter-Corey reaction
          2. Deprotonation of benzaldehyde-acetals
          3. Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction
B) C-C Bond Formation
1. Polar reactions
      1.1. Organolithium and Grignard reagents as nucleophiles
          1. Preparation
               - Metalation of halogenated compounds
               - Hydrogen/metal exchange
               - Halogen/metal exchange
          2. Reaction of carbonyl compounds
               - General reactivity of electrophiles
               - Reaction of Organolithium and Grignard reagents
               - Diastereoselectivity of nucleophilic addition (Felkin-Anh, Cram rules, and chelating control)
               - Enantioselectivity of organozinc/aldehyde additions
      1.2. Reaction with organocopper reagents
          1. 1,4-Addition
          2. Vinyl and aryl coupling
          3. Allylation
          4. Reaction with saturated epoxides
          5. Reaction with acid chlorides
     1.3. Acyl anion equivalents
          1. Dithianes
          2. O-Alkylated cyanohydranes
          3. Alpha lithiated vinyl ethers
     1.4. Homoenolate equivalents
     1.5. Olefination of carbonyl compounds
          1. Wittig reaction (Unstabilized ylides)
          2. Horner-Emmons modification (stabilized ylides)
          3. C.W. Still Modification
          4. Peterson reaction
          5. Methylenation of carbonyl compounds by Tebbe reagent
     1.6. Sulfur ylides
          1. Reaction with saturated aldehydes and ketones
          2. Reaction with α, β-unsaturated ketones
      1.7. Reactions of enolates
          1. Preparation of enolates by α-deprotonation
          2. Alkylation
               - Alkylation of enolates derived from 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds
               - Alkylation at γ position of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds- Alkylation of monocarbonyl compounds
               - Formation of enolates in a regiocontrolled manner
               - Control of E/Z configuration – Ireland Model
               - Enantioselective alkylation of enolates with chiral auxiliaries
          3. Preparation of enolates by other methods
               - Reduction of conjugated enones
               - Conjugated addition (1,4) of organocopper compounds
               - Reduction of α-heterosubstituted ketones
               - Cleavage of vinyloxysilanes
          4. Micheal Reaction
               - Robinson annulation
               - Silylvinylketones as Michael receptors
          5. Aldol Condensation
               - Cross condensation
               - Stabilization of aldol adduct by chelation
               - Lithiated imines as enolate analogues
               - Silyloxyvinyl derivatives (Silylether enolates-Mukaiyama)
               - Vinyloxyboranes (Evans, Masamune)
               - Asymetric Aldol condensation (syn or anti selective)
          6. Acylation of enolates
               - Claisen condensation
     1.8. Anemanines as nucleophiles
          1. Preparation
          2. Alkylation of –N and –C
          3. Michael reaction
          4. Acylation
     1.9. Mannich reaction
          1. Reaction of enols with iminium salts
          2. N-Acyl-iminium salts (Speckamp)
     1.10. Acylation of aromatic and olefinic compounds
          1. Friedel-Crafts Acylation
          2. Vilsmeier-Haack formylation
          3. Acylation of alkenes
     1.11. Vinyl- and allyl-silanes as nucleophiles
2. Pericyclic reactions
     2.1. Cycloadditions
          1. Diels-Alder reactions
               - Dienophiles
               - Dienes- Regiochemistry of the addition
               - Stereochemistry of the addition
               - Diels-Alder cycloreversion (retro)
               - Catalysis by Lewis Acids
               - π-facial selectivity
          2. 1,3-Dipolar cycloadditions
               - Nitrones
               - Nitriloxides
          3. [2+2] Cycloadditions
          4. [1+2] cycoadditions
               - With diazo compounds
               - Simmon-Smith reaction
          5. Intramolecular cycloadditions
     2.2. Chelotropic reactions
     2.3. Electrocyclic reactions
          1. Cyclobutene-1,3dienes
          2. Nazarov eraction
      2.4. Ene reaction
          - Inter- and intramolecular
          - Mg-ene reaction (Mg transfer)
     2.5. Sigmatropic rearrangements
          1. [1,2] rearrangement
          2. [2,3] migration
          3. [3,3] rearrangement
               - Cope rearrangement
               - Anionic Oxy-Cope rearrangement
               - Claisen-Cope Rearrangement
3. Radical reactions
     3.1. Cyclization
     3.2. Cyclization by halogen atom transfer
     3.3. Photocycloadditions [2+2]           1. Mechanism, limitations
          2. De-Mayo reactions
          3. Intramolecular reactions
4. Reaction catalyzed by Pd complexes
     4.1. Pd catalyst
     4.2. Fundamental reactions
          1. Oxidative addition, reductive elimination
          2. Insertion
          3. β-Elimination
     4.3. Catalytic cascade reactions
          1. Coupling reactions
          2. Carbonylation
          3. Heck reaction
          4. π-allyl complexes of Palladium as electrophiles